The principles of co-production and co-creation are an integral part of community media. Both co-production and co-creation involve people working together to design and deliver media services and content that is both meaningful and has a sustainable impact. Co-creation and co-production are based on the idea that no one group, or person, is more valued than any other. Co-creation emphasises equality, diversity, and accessibility in the process of social and public communications.
Co-production and co-creation are about partnership working between people who draw on principles of care and support, where we view one another as carers and facilitators, and play an active role in civic life with the aim of improving our shared and mutually beneficial public services. In participatory media practice, co-production and co-creation are implemented through a collaborative and bottom-up approach, where a community of people works together, often with a facilitator, to produce media that is relevant to them and their wider community. This process empowers individuals by giving them a voice and involves them in the creation of meaningful content, which can be used for research, reflection, or evaluation.
Examples of co-production in participatory media practice include:
- Participatory Video (PV): This involves community members directly controlling and operating the camera to produce videos that are relevant to them and their community.
- Digital Storytelling: Collaborative creation of digital stories by a group of individuals, often facilitated by a professional, to share personal narratives and experiences.
- Podcasting: Co-producing podcasts with community members to share their voices and perspectives on various topics.
- Blogging and Journalism: Engaging community members in the creation of blogs and journalistic content to express their views and experiences.
These examples demonstrate how participatory media practice empowers individuals by involving them in the creation of meaningful content, giving them a voice, and fostering collaboration within their communities. Challenges in building trust and capacity in co-production within participatory media practice are multi-faceted and can significantly impact the success and sustainability of such initiatives.
Developing each point further:
- Overcoming Lack of Trust: Trust is a cornerstone of successful co-production, yet it can be challenging to establish, particularly when there’s a perceived disconnect between researchers, professionals, and community members. This lack of trust may stem from previous negative experiences, cultural or socio-economic differences, or a lack of understanding of each other’s intentions and capabilities. To overcome this, it is vital to create open communication channels, involve community members from the outset, and demonstrate transparency and consistency in actions. Building trust is a gradual process that requires time, patience, and genuine efforts to understand and value each participant’s perspective.
- Addressing Barriers to Engagement: Participants may face various barriers to engagement, including lack of motivation, unclear objectives and roles, and the challenges posed by sporadic collaborations, often exacerbated by limited resources and funding. These barriers can prevent the formation of trustful relationships. To address these, it’s crucial to clearly define the purpose and benefits of the co-production initiative, establish well-defined roles and responsibilities, and ensure regular and meaningful interactions among participants. Additionally, securing stable funding and resources can provide a more reliable and conducive environment for engagement.
- Navigating Power Dynamics: Power imbalances can significantly hinder trust-building in co-production. Professionals and researchers may inadvertently dominate discussions or decision-making processes, leading to unequal participation. It’s essential to actively work towards levelling the playing field, giving equal weight to the voices and contributions of all participants, regardless of their professional or social status. This may involve specific strategies like facilitation techniques that encourage quieter members to speak up, or decision-making processes that require consensus or majority agreement. Addressing power dynamics is not only about facilitating equal participation but also about fostering an environment of mutual respect and understanding.
Addressing these challenges involves a concerted effort to build and maintain trust, actively engage all participants, and consciously manage power dynamics. These efforts are essential to foster meaningful co-production in participatory media practice, leading to more inclusive, representative, and impactful community media content. Furthermore, addressing the challenges inherent in co-production for participatory media requires practical solutions that can fundamentally alter the existing dynamics of community engagement, particularly in scenarios where professional media producers and journalists are more accustomed to speaking about community members rather than enabling them to speak for themselves.
Facilitating Community Voices: A key solution is to shift the role of professional media producers and journalists from being the primary narrators to facilitators of storytelling. This involves providing platforms, resources, and training to community members to tell their own stories. Workshops on media production, storytelling techniques, and digital literacy can empower community members to articulate their experiences and perspectives effectively.
Collaborative Content Development: Encourage joint content creation where professionals and community members co-create media pieces. This collaboration can be in the form of joint editorial meetings, shared decision-making in content selection, and pairing professional journalists with community storytellers for mentorship and support.
Building Long-term Relationships: Developing trust and understanding between media professionals and community members is crucial. This can be achieved by investing time in relationship-building activities, regular community engagement, and creating feedback loops where community input is actively sought and incorporated into media practices.
Reorienting Editorial Policies: Media organisations need to revisit their editorial policies to ensure they support and reflect the ethos of co-production. This includes policies that prioritise community voices, support diverse representation, and assure ethical storytelling practices that respect the dignity and autonomy of community participants.
Creating Accessible Media Platforms: Develop accessible and user-friendly platforms where community members can easily share their stories. This could be a dedicated section in a community newspaper, a segment in a community radio program, or an online portal for community blogs and videos.
Resource Allocation: Allocate resources specifically for community-led media initiatives. This includes funding, equipment, and training resources that are directed towards supporting community members in developing their media skills and producing content.
Evaluating Impact: Regularly evaluate the impact of these co-production efforts to understand how effectively they are enabling community members to represent themselves. Use these evaluations to continually refine practices and strategies.
By implementing these practical solutions, co-production in participatory media can evolve into a more inclusive and empowering process, one that places community members at the heart of their narratives and fosters a more equitable and participatory media landscape.
Building trust is a fundamental and indispensable component of the community development process, playing a critical role in enabling and supporting effective co-production. This process is not just about bringing people together for a common purpose; it’s about fostering a sense of reliability, mutual respect, and understanding, that lays the groundwork for successful collaborative efforts. Implementing sustainable participatory methodologies is key in this regard. These methodologies involve inclusive practices that engage community members actively and continuously, ensuring that their involvement is not just a one-time occurrence but a consistent feature of the community development process.
Moreover, the enhancement of equal and reciprocal relationships is vital in building trust. This means recognising the value of everyone’s contribution, whether it’s a resident, a community leader, or an external stakeholder. Such an approach ensures that all voices are heard and considered equally, creating a balanced and fair environment where people feel valued and respected.
Empowerment is another critical aspect of building trust in community development. Empowering people to speak and find their voices involves creating safe and supportive spaces where they can express their views, share their stories, and contribute their ideas without fear of judgment or dismissal. This empowerment is not just about giving people a platform to speak; it’s about actively listening, acknowledging their perspectives, and integrating their input into the co-production process.
By focusing on these key areas — sustainable participatory methodologies, equal and reciprocal relationships, and empowerment — trust can be effectively built and nurtured within communities. This trust is not only essential for the success of specific projects, but also for fostering a sense of community cohesion and solidarity, which are the bedrock of any thriving community development endeavour.
Building trust and mutual respect in co-production in participatory media practice can be achieved through several best practices, as highlighted in the search results:
Participatory Methodologies: Building trust over time through participatory methodologies is essential. Co-production allows for the appreciation that building participatory methodologies is crucial for establishing trust over time with the people involved in any form of communication practice. Participatory methodologies play a crucial role in building trust over time in community media projects by creating inclusive and accessible platforms for a wide range of participants.
These methodologies are predicated on the principle of openness, welcoming individuals with varied skills, aptitudes, resources, and capabilities to work together collaboratively. By enabling access to media platforms, participatory methodologies democratise the process of content creation, allowing voices from different parts of the community to be heard and represented. This approach fosters a sense of belonging and ownership among participants, as they see their contributions valued and their perspectives reflected in the media output.
Moreover, the inclusive nature of participatory methodologies encourages diversity in thought and experience, leading to richer, more nuanced content. By being open to people with different skill levels, from novices to experts, and those with varying resources, these methodologies ensure that the process is not just about producing media content but about community engagement and capacity building. Individuals learn from each other, share their unique insights, and collectively enhance the project, building trust not only in the process but also among each other.
This trust-building is a gradual process, nurtured through consistent engagement, respectful collaboration, and the celebration of each participant’s contribution, regardless of their background or expertise. Over time, these methodologies transform the media platform into a shared space where trust, collaboration, and mutual learning are the norm, laying a strong foundation for ongoing community development and empowerment.
Participatory methodologies play a crucial role in building trust over time in community media projects by creating inclusive and accessible platforms for a wide range of participants. These methodologies are predicated on the principle of openness, welcoming individuals with varied skills, aptitudes, resources, and capabilities to work together collaboratively. By enabling access to media platforms, participatory methodologies democratize the process of content creation, allowing voices from different segments of the community to be heard and represented. This approach fosters a sense of belonging and ownership among participants, as they see their contributions valued and their perspectives reflected in the media output.
Equal and Reciprocal Relationship: Effective co-production is grounded in the principles of accessibility, diversity, equality, and reciprocity. It allows for an equal and reciprocal relationship between staff and people with lived experience in designing and delivering activities, projects, or services. Support for equal and reciprocal relationships in community media projects is deeply rooted in the principles of accessibility, diversity, equality, and reciprocity.
These principles form the bedrock of a democratically engaging media landscape where every participant, regardless of their background, is given an equal opportunity to contribute and benefit. Accessibility ensures that everyone can participate, breaking down barriers related to technology, language, and physical or socio-economic constraints. Embracing diversity means valuing and actively seeking a range of perspectives, life experiences, and voices, recognizing that a rich tapestry of contributions enhances the quality and relevance of the media content.
Equality in this context goes beyond mere representation; it’s about ensuring that each participant has an equal say in decision-making processes and their contributions are valued equally. This creates a sense of fairness and respect, which is critical for building trust and fostering long-term engagement. Reciprocity is central to sustaining these relationships; it’s about creating a give-and-take dynamic where all parties feel that they are both contributing to and gaining from the project. This could be in the form of shared knowledge, skills, experiences, or other resources.
The reciprocal relationships developed in community media projects are potentially democratically engaging. They bring together people from diverse backgrounds, with different resources, outlooks, and life experiences, in a collective endeavour. This not only enriches the media content but also fosters a sense of community and mutual understanding. Such an environment encourages active participation and collaborative learning, making the media project a truly communal and democratic space.
Empowerment and Voice: Participatory media production empowers its makers by giving them a voice, allowing their voices to be heard by decision-makers, their own networks, peers, communities, or even wider audiences. This empowerment fosters mutual respect and trust within the co-production process. The empowerment of voice in participatory community media is a fundamental attribute that plays a crucial role in enabling those who are often unheard by decision-makers to actively engage in discussions within their own networks and across different communities.
This empowerment goes beyond merely providing a platform; it involves nurturing an environment where individuals feel confident and safe to express their views, share their stories, and articulate their concerns. By doing so, participatory community media acts as a facilitator of dialogue and a bridge between diverse groups, allowing for a richer exchange of perspectives and experiences.
This inclusive approach is particularly significant for individuals and groups who traditionally may not have had access to mainstream media channels or whose voices have been marginalised in public discourse. By offering them a space to be heard, community media amplifies their voices and validates their experiences and opinions. This, in turn, encourages more active participation in their communities and in broader societal conversations.
Moreover, the interaction and dialogue facilitated by participatory community media between people from different backgrounds foster a sense of mutual respect and trust. As community members engage with and listen to each other’s stories and viewpoints, there is a natural development of empathy and understanding. This not only strengthens the social fabric of individual communities but also builds bridges between disparate groups, fostering a more cohesive and empathetic society. In essence, the empowerment of voice through participatory community media is not just about giving people a platform to speak; it’s about creating a more inclusive, respectful, and connected world.
Best Practices for Co-Production
Communities can often find themselves marginalized from mainstream communication practices due to factors such as age, location, race, sex, disability, and other socio-economic or cultural barriers. These factors can create significant obstacles that inhibit full participation in civic life. For instance, older adults might face challenges due to the digital divide, as modern communication increasingly relies on technology that they are unfamiliar with. Similarly, those living in remote or rural areas often have limited access to communication infrastructure, making it difficult for them to stay connected and informed.
Racial and ethnic minorities may encounter language barriers or a lack of representation in mainstream media, leading to a sense of exclusion and a lack of relevant information. Gender disparities, too, play a role, with societal norms and biases potentially limiting the extent to which individuals of different sexes can participate in public discourse. Additionally, people with disabilities might face physical and technological barriers that impede their access to communication channels.
These factors not only limit individuals’ ability to receive information but also restrict their opportunities to express themselves and engage in dialogue, which are critical components of active civic participation. As a result, these marginalized communities often find themselves underrepresented or misrepresented in mainstream narratives, leading to a cycle of exclusion and disempowerment.
Acknowledging and addressing these barriers is crucial for creating a more inclusive, equitable, and participatory civic environment where all voices are heard and valued.
Many of the best forms of co-creative and co-productive practices emphasise the importance of participatory methodologies, equal and reciprocal relationships, and empowerment through voice in building trust and mutual respect in co-production within participatory media practice.
Marginalised communities can be involved in co-production in participatory media practice through various initiatives and approaches, such as:
Participatory Media Methods: Participatory media methods involve professional media-makers working with non-professionals, allowing community members to directly control and operate the tools of production, such as cameras, to create media that is relevant to them and their communities. De-professionalising media is an essential step towards democratising it.
Empowerment through Media Production: Collaborative or co-produced media, including video, photography, voice, podcast, digital storytelling, animation, blogging, journalism, campaigning, music, and art, empowers its makers by giving them a voice and allows their voices to be heard by decision-makers, their own networks, peers, communities, or wider audiences.
Addressing Experiential Knowledge: Participatory methods and approaches address gaps in experiential knowledge of exclusion and marginalisation, allowing marginalised populations to contribute to the co-production of participatory action research.
Empowering Marginalised Parties: Participatory media practices empower marginalised people to project their stories and create images or sounds, amplifying their voices and shaping social, economic, political, and cultural processes and institutions.
These examples demonstrate how participatory media practice has involved marginalised communities by empowering them to create meaningful media content, share their experiences, and contribute to social change through co-production initiatives. Applying these principles and insights to co-creative practices to community media can significantly enhance the development of stories and news that resonate with and build upon a community’s sense of identity and its ability to interact with others. Here’s how this can be approached:
- Equality and Inclusivity in Storytelling: Just as co-creation in the arts emphasises equality and inclusivity, in community media, this means actively involving diverse community members in the storytelling process. Stories and news items should reflect the varied experiences and perspectives within the community, ensuring that all voices are heard and represented.
- Shared Decision-Making in Content Creation: Encourage collaborative decision-making in choosing topics, framing stories, and determining how they are presented. This approach mirrors the co-creative process in arts and ensures that the content is relevant and meaningful to the community.
- Mutual Learning and Respect: Foster an environment where professional journalists, community members, and other stakeholders learn from each other. Respect for each individual’s knowledge and experience enriches the storytelling process and contributes to a more nuanced and comprehensive narrative.
- Process-Oriented Approach: Focus on the process of creating community media as much as the end product. This could involve workshops, community meetings, and open forums where the process of developing stories and news is as valued as the stories themselves.
- Flexibility and Adaptability: Community media should be adaptable to the changing needs and dynamics of the community. This might mean adjusting editorial approaches or experimenting with different media formats to best serve the community’s interests.
- Sustainable Relationships for Ongoing Engagement: Build long-term relationships with community members to ensure ongoing engagement and participation. Sustainable relationships can lead to a continuous flow of relevant, community-driven content.
- Community Impact and Reflection: Evaluate the impact of the community media on its audience. Reflect on how well the media serves the community’s needs, addresses its issues, and fosters a sense of unity and interaction with others.
- Networks for Collaboration and Support: Similar to the Co-Creating Change Network in arts, establish networks for community media practitioners to share experiences, challenges, and innovations. This can lead to collaborative projects and a stronger, more resilient community media landscape.
By integrating these co-creative practices into community media, the content becomes not just a means of information dissemination but a tool for community empowerment, engagement, and identity-building. This approach ensures that community media truly reflects and serves the interests and aspirations of the community it represents, fostering a deeper connection and interaction both within the community and with the wider world.
Co-creation as a practice in community media promotes equality by integrating the principles of equality of value, equality of opportunity, and equality of outcome, each of which plays a distinct role in different forms of community media.
Equality of Value: This principle emphasises the intrinsic worth of every participant’s input, regardless of their background or expertise. In community media, this means valuing contributions from all members of the community, whether they are contributing to a community radio program, writing for a local newspaper, blogging, or engaging on social media. Every story, perspective, and voice can be given equal respect and consideration, fostering a diverse and inclusive media landscape.
Equality of Opportunity: By ensuring that all members of the community have equal access to participate in media creation and dissemination, we improve the opportunities people have to participate in media stories more generally. In community radio, for example, it might involve providing training and resources to those who lack media skills. For community newspapers and blogs, it could mean offering platforms for different community groups to share their stories. In the context of social media networks, equality of opportunity could involve ensuring that the platforms are accessible to all, including those with disabilities or those who lack digital literacy.
Equality of Outcome: By making certain that all community media efforts lead to equitable benefits for all participants. For community radio, this might mean programming that addresses the needs and interests of all community segments. In community newspapers and blogging, equality of outcome can be reflected in the breadth and impact of the stories covered, ensuring they resonate with and serve the diverse needs of the community. In social media networks, it involves creating spaces where diverse groups can engage and benefit equally, ensuring that the platform does not favour certain voices over others.
In practice, these principles guide the development and operation of community media. They help ensure that these platforms are not just tools for mass communications media, but are also instruments for promoting social equality, inclusion, and community empowerment. Whether it’s through radio, newspapers, blogging, or social media, applying these principles of equality ensures that community media serves as a true reflection of the community’s diverse voices and experiences, fostering a more engaged and informed community.